Automatic synthesis of explosion sound synchronized with animation

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Automatic synthesis of explosion sound synchronized with animation Shiguang Liu1 · Si Gao1 Received: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 © Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Abstract Sound is an essential element for enhancing the realness of virtual world. Currently, there are some remarkable works on the synthesis of fluid sound, such as fire and water. However, little attention has been paid to synthesizing explosion sound. This paper proposes an automatic method for synthesizing explosion sounds that are synchronized with the visual phenomena of explosion animations, including fireball generation and flame combustion. Such two types of visual animation correspond to two types of sound, which we name as explosive sound and combustion noise, respectively. For the synthesis of explosive sound, firstly, the occurrence time and duration of explosion sound are determined according to the dynamic process of fuel consumption, and then, the corresponding explosive sound is extracted from the recording examples according to the high-frequency content. For the combustion noise, we propose a synthesis method of combustion noise on the basis of the timbre similarity between sound examples and low-frequency combustion noise generated by a physical method. Finally, the two types of sound are blended respecting the occurrence and duration of the explosions and combustions parts detected in the visual stream. Our experiments and the user study show the results of our method and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Keywords  Audiovisual synchronization · Explosive sound · Combustion noise · Sound synthesis · Immersive virtual reality

1 Introduction Fluid animations, such as explosion (Yngve et al. 2000), fire (Smith and Ericson 2009) and water (Liu and Xiong 2013), are becoming more and more common in films, games and interactive virtual environment. Adding sound to these scenes is of importance to enhance the immersion quality of virtual reality scenes. At present, there are some successful works for synthesizing synchronous fluid sounds, such as fire (Chadwick and James 2011; Yin and Liu 2018), or water (Moss et al. 2010; Wang et al. 2017). However, little attention has been paid to automatic sound synthesis for explosion. The main reason is that there are multiple types of sound (e.g., explosive sound, combustion noise)

Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (https​://doi.org/10.1007/s1005​5-019-00408​-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. * Shiguang Liu [email protected] 1



Division of Intelligence and Computing, School of Computer Science and Technology, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China

in the process of explosion, and their physical mechanisms are complicated. Previous studies have simplified the explosion as a combustion phenomenon and synthesized several examples of explosion sound (Dobashi et al. 2004; Yin and Liu 2018). However, there are not only burning but also fireball and other main

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