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Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

1 3Reference

Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

Claire Smith Editor

Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

With 2619 Figures and 106 Tables

Editor Claire Smith Department of Archaeology Flinders University Adelaide, SA Australia

ISBN 978-1-4419-0426-3 ISBN 978-1-4419-0465-2 (eBook) ISBN 978-1-4419-0466-9 (print and electronic bundle) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2 Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2013953915 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (

For Jacko

Also dedicated to James Alexander Smith Annette Pauline Vera Smith Charles Thurstan Shaw Thomas Walter Willis


Archaeology – the study of human cultures through the analysis and interpretation of artifacts and material remains – continues to captivate and engage people on a local and global level. The significance of such international heritage sites such as the pyramids – both Egyptian and Mayan – the Lascaux caves, Stonehenge, and Petra all provide insights into our ancestors and their actions and motivations. However, there is much more to archaeology than famous sites. When archaeologists are asked to elaborate about their job, they will touch on archaeol