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Introduction Guest Editors: Venkatesan Renugopalakrishnan, Ph.D. Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA

Pulickel M. Ajayan, Ph.D. Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

Dorian Liepmann, Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Catherine Klapperich, Ph.D. Boston University, Boston, MA, USA

Sowmya Viswanathan, M.D. Newton Wellesley Hospital/Partners Healthcare System, Newton, MA, USA

Biomolecules functionalized on the surface of atomic thickness single layer 2D materials combine the exceptional electronic properties and the stereospecificity of host and guest molecular entities. However, it is a challenge to functionalize biomolecules retaining their 3D structural integrity after deposition or conjugation to the surface of a 2D nanomaterial. Engineering the interface between electronic materials and biomolecules is critical in integrating functional bio-inspired devices and realizing new technologies like in vitro Point-of-Care (POC) sensors for disease detection and monitoring. Much more challenging are sensors for implantation into living systems. The electronic characteristics of graphene are highly sensitive to adsorbed or covalently linked molecules via chemical doping. Inspired by biology, DNA, RNA, and proteins have been designed that spontaneously form exquisite molecular architectures on solid surfaces by self-assembly dictated by intermolecular forces. There are several facets of the integration of graphene and biomolecules like DNA that require much more understanding. Deeper understanding of these interfaces will enable engineers to bridge medical science and materials science in a meaningful way. Specific applications involve designing smart -POC devices for personalized precision medicine. Biosensors and POC devices for monitoring of multiple biomarkers, implantable devices, and non-invasive monitoring systems have significantly improved in accuracy over the last twenty years. A good example is glucose sensors, which have been developed and refined significantly for over five decades. However, even with substantial effort, there continue to be several challenges

DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2017.305

related to accuracy and reliability. In accordance with international standards, glucometers are required to produce results within a twenty percent margin of error, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is contemplating even more stringent standards. For this reason, coupled with knowledge gained from the previous research on glucose measurement, the ability to combine the exceptional electrical properties of emerging nanomaterials, both carbon and non-carbon-based, with the stereospecific functionality of biological macromolecules offers promising new avenues in diagnosis and treatment. Multiplexed lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices designed by integrating graphene and other emerging nanomaterials that can sense and detect target biomarkers can exploit the full potential of proteins acting as nanosensors and nanofilters. The excellent electrical properties

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