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Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Second Edition

Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Elias G. Carayannis Editor

Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship With 481 Figures and 105 Tables

Editor Elias G. Carayannis Department of Information Systems and Technology Management, European Union Research Center GWU School of Business, The George Washington University Washington, DC, USA

ISBN 978-3-319-15346-9 ISBN 978-3-319-15347-6 (eBook) ISBN 978-3-319-15348-3 (print and electronic bundle) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15347-6 1st edition: © Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013 2nd edition: © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

Preface to the Second Edition

I am pleased to share with you the second print edition of perhaps the first in its nature, scale, and scope publishing project trying to bring together theories, practices, and policies related to the nature and dynamics of creativity, invention, innovation, and entrepreneurship. In collaboration with Springer Publishers, my four Associate Editors of the Springer Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship and I have brought to completion this precedent-setting and intellectual-footprint-defining Work of Reference. The aim has been to help define the intellectual scaffolds for the four related emerging thematic areas of research and practice. Editorial Board Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Elias G. Carayannis, George Washington University, USA Creativity Associate Editor: Dr. Igor N. Dubina, Altai State University, Russia Invention Asso