Mystery Religions

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David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden, Stanton Marlan (Eds.)

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

With 15 Figures and 2 Tables

Editors-in-Chief: David A. Leeming, Ph.D. Blanton-Peale Institute 3 West 29th Street New York, NY 10001 USA Kathryn Madden, Ph.D. National Institute for the Psychotherapies 250 West 57th Street, Suite 501 New York, NY 10019 USA Stanton Marlan, Ph.D. Pittsburgh Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis 4527 Winthrop Street Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3722 USA

A C.I.P. Catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Library of Congress Control Number: 2009934794 ISBN: 978-0-387-71801-9 The electronic version will be available under ISBN 978-0-387-71802-6 The print and electronic bundle will be available under ISBN 978-0-387-71803-3 ß Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010 (USA) All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Printed on acid-free paper

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Preface Mr. Kenneth Giniger some time ago suggested to Dr. Holly Johnson, then President of Blanton-Peale Institute, New York, NY, that Blanton-Peale compile an encyclopedia of psychology and religion, a comprehensive reference work consisting of articles contributed by scholars of importance in the fields of religion, psychology, psychology and religion, and psychology of religion. Dr. Johnson also saw the need for such an information source and began planning work on the project with the assistance of Blanton-Peale colleagues, Dr. Walter Odajnyk and Dr. David A. Leeming. Long working together with Blanton-Peale on behalf of Journal of Religion and Health, Springer Science+Business Media became publisher, with Dr. Leeming, Dr. Kathryn Madden, and Dr. Stanton Marlan named as Editors-in-Chief. Dr. Leeming became Managing Editor of the project. He has taught courses in myth, religion, and literature for many years and has published several books on these subjects, including the Oxford Companion to World Mythology, and until recently was Editor-in-Chief of the award-winning Journal of Religion and Health and Dean of Blanton-Peale’s Graduate Institute. He is currently President of Blanton-Peale Institute. Dr. Madden served as Dean and later President of Blanton-Peale, was Associate Editor and later Executive Editor of the Journal of Religion and Health, and has recently published Dark Light of the Soul (Lindi