Nanomaterials in Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors

This book provides an authoritative source of information on the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing electrochemical energy storage systems and the manners in which new such systems are being made possible. The book covers the stat

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Kenneth I. Ozoemena Shaowei Chen Editors

Nanomaterials in Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors

Nanostructure Science and Technology Series Editor: David J. Lockwood, FRSC National Research Council of Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

More information about this series at

Kenneth I. Ozoemena • Shaowei Chen Editors

Nanomaterials in Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors

Editors Kenneth I. Ozoemena Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, South Africa

Shaowei Chen University of California Santa Cruz, CA, USA

ISSN 1571-5744 ISSN 2197-7976 (electronic) Nanostructure Science and Technology ISBN 978-3-319-26080-8 ISBN 978-3-319-26082-2 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-26082-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016944233 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland


This decade has witnessed rapid development in the global quest for clean, sustainable energy and an outburst in new technologies, such as smart phones and electric vehicles. These developments have stimulated intense research interest in advanced electrical energy storage systems. Every market analysis continues to predict that advanced batteries, most notably lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors (also known as ultracapacitors) will dominate electrical energy storage technologies for a plethora of applications, ranging from portable electronics to next-generation environmentally friendly technologies such as electric vehicles and smart grids. Batteries and supercapacitors are complementary electrochemical energy storage systems; the former are characterized by highenergy density, while the latter are known for high-power density. Supercapacitors are most suited for applications that require energy pulses during short periods of time, such a