Strain Effects on the Conduction Band of Silicon

The conduction band in silicon consists of six equivalent valleys with their energy minima located close to the corresponding X-points of the first Brillouin zone. Within the usually used parabolic approximation (.1) each valley is characterized by two tr

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Computational Microelectronics

Edited by

Siegfried Selberherr Technical University Vienna Vienna, Austria

For further volumes: www.springer.com/series/1263

Viktor Sverdlov

Strain-Induced Effects in Advanced MOSFETs

SpringerWienNewYork

Viktor Sverdlov Technical University Vienna Institute for Microelectronics Gusshausstrasse 27-29 1040 Vienna Austria [email protected]

This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Product Liability: The publisher can give no guarantee for all the information contained in this book. The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. © 2011 Springer-Verlag/Wien Printed in Germany SpringerWienNewYork is a part of Springer Science+Business Media springer.at Cover: WMXDesign GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany Typesetting: SPi, Chennai, India Printed on acid-free and chlorine-free bleached paper SPIN: 80018573 With 101 Figures Library of Congress Control Number: 2010938373 ISBN 978-3-7091-0381-4 e-ISBN 978-3-7091-0382-1 DOI 10.1007/978-3-7091-0382-1 SpringerWienNewYork

To Alexandra, Karin, Ludmila, & Nikolai



Preface

Strain is the main tool to boost current and enhance performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Modeling and understanding of strain effects on band structure and mobility has become the important task of modern simulation tools used to design ultra-scaled MOSFETs. This book focuses on modern modeling approaches and methods describing strain in silicon. Contrary to the valence band, strain-induced conduction band modifications have received substantially less attention. Peculiarities of subband structures in thin semiconductor films under stress are investigated in detail using numerical pseudopotential calculations as well as a kp theory, which includes the two lowest conduction bands. Implementation of strain in transport modeling for modern microelectronics design tools is overviewed. Application ranges from device modeling to applied mathematics and software development. The book is based on my research and partly on my course of lectures given for the Master’s and PhD students in electrical engineering, microelectronics, physics, and applied mathematics at the Institute for Microelectronics, Technische Universit¨at Wien. This book would not have been written without the support of the Institute for Microelectronics and its Director Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. E. Langer. I would like to thank Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. T. Grasser, Univ.Prof. Dipl.Ing. Dr.techn. H. Kosina, and Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Dr.h.c. S. Selberherr for their overwhelming encouragement, sup