Additive manufacturing for COVID-19: Devices, materials, prospects, and challenges

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Prospectives

Additive Manufacturing for COVID-19: Devices, Materials, Prospects and Challenges Rigoberto C. Advincula*, John Ryan C. Dizon, Qiyi Chen, Ivy Niu, Jason Chung, Lucas Kilpatrick, Reagan Newman ––––––––– Prof. R. C. Advincula University of Tennessee – Knoxville / Oak Ridge National Laboratory Governor’s Chair E-mail: [email protected] Prof. J. R. C. Dizon Additive Manufacturing Research Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering College of Engineering and Architecture, Bataan Peninsula State University City of Balanga, Bataan, 2100, Philippines E-mail: [email protected] Dr. Qiyi Chen Oak Ridge National Laboratory E-mail: [email protected] Ivy Niu University of Tennessee [email protected] Lucas Kilpatrick University of Tennessee [email protected] Jason Chung University of Tennessee [email protected] Reagan Newman University of Tennessee [email protected]

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Abstract. The current COVID-19 pandemic has caused the shortage of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) where improvised manufacturing in particular 3D printing has addressed many needs. This prospective discusses the current global crisis, then follows the wide interest in addressing the shortage of medical devices and PPEs used for treatment and protection against pathogens. An overview of the 3D printing process with polymer materials is given followed by the different 3d printing projects of PPEs and medical devices that emerged for the pandemic (including validation/testing). The potential for rapid proto-typing with different polymer materials and eventual high throughput production is emphasized.

Keywords: 3D printing, Polymer, virus, pandemic, composites

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1. Introduction about the COVID-19 situation. The current pandemic and the response by governments worldwide is unprecedented. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogen is a positive-sense singlestranded RNA virus which causes an acute respiratory illness now known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a "coronavirus", virions (the infective form of the virus) of bulbous surface projections of peplomers (proteins on the surface of the virus) with a net negative charge (carboxy terminus) can have a distinct surface adsorption properties including specific transmembrane domain and endodomain assembly effects. It is a pathogenic nanoparticle of about 120 nm diameter where scientists and epidemiologists are just learning how quickly it spreads and the needs to mitigate exposure. It is still largely unknown how persistent they are in the environment and how they transmit beyond