Development of ceramic additive manufacturing: process and materials technology

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Development of ceramic additive manufacturing: process and materials technology Seongwan Jang1 · Sujin Park1 · Chang‑jun Bae1 Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 21 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 © Korean Society of Medical and Biological Engineering 2020

Abstract Ceramic additive manufacturing (C-AM) is highlighted as a technology that can overcome the inherent limitations of ceramics such as processability and formability. This process creates a structure by slicing a 3D model and stacking ceramic materials layer-by-layer without mold or machining. C-AM is a technology suitable for the era of multiple low-volume because it is more flexible than conventional methods for shape complexity and design modification. However, many barriers to practical use remain due to process speed, defects, and lack of knowledge. This review focuses on studies to overcome the limitations of C-AM in terms of process and materials. The C-AM process has been advanced through various studies such as model/ equation-based parameter control and high-speed sintering using external energy. Besides, by improving and fusing existing technologies, high-precision high-speed printing technology has been improved. A variety of material studies have been made of manufacturing ceramic structures with superior properties using preceramic polymers and composite materials. Through these studies, C-AM has been applied to various fields such as medicine, energy, environment, machinery, and architecture. These continued growths and diverse results demonstrate the importance and potential of C-AM based ceramic manufacturing technology. Keywords  Ceramic additive manufacturing · 3D printing · Printing process · Printing materials

1 Introduction Ceramic additive manufacturing(C-AM) stacking materials layer by layer (bottom-up approach) is fundamentally different from subtractive manufacturing in conventional methods [1]. This process consists of four steps: model design and slicing, printing, post-treatment, and heat treatment. (1) The desired design for C-AM is transformed into data that is divided into several thin layers through a slicing process. (2) The transformed data is transmitted to a 3D printer, and a three-dimensional green body is created through the process of stacking materials layer by layer. AM process time varies greatly depending on the setting values such as the thickness of the layer and the lifting speed. The green body is made of the desired final material through a (3) post-treatment such as washing and removal of the support, (4) followed by a heat treatment process of debinding and sintering. C-AM is * Chang‑jun Bae [email protected] 1



3D Printing Materials Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508, South Korea

advantageous for the production of personalized products over conventional techniques. As shown in Fig. 1, AM materials can be classified into three types of liquid-based, solid-based, and powder-based systems according to the supplied state [2]. The liquidbased sy