Double-layer absorbers based on hierarchical MXene composites for microwave absorption through optimal combination

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Double-layer absorbers based on hierarchical MXene composites for microwave absorption through optimal combination Peijiang Liu1,2,3,4,a), Shuixian Chen1, Min Yao1, Zhengjun Yao3,b) , Vincent Ming Hong Ng4, Jintang Zhou3, Yiming Lei3, Zhihong Yang3, Ling Bing Kong5,c) 1

College of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, China South China Advanced Institute for Soft Matter Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China 3 College of Materials and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100, Jiangsu, China 4 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 5 College of New Materials and New Energies, Shenzhen Technology University, Guangdong, China a) Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail: [email protected] b)e-mail: [email protected] c)e-mail: [email protected] 2

Received: 27 February 2020; accepted: 27 April 2020

Double-layer absorbers have recently been extensively studied because single-layer absorbers can hardly meet the requirements of advanced absorbing materials. However, determining how to couple the matching and absorption layers remains a challenge. In the present work, we applied the hydrothermal method to prepare an ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticle and a hierarchical MXene/Fe3O4 composite and then studied the microwave attenuation capabilities of single- and double-layer absorbers containing these two materials with different thicknesses. Absorbers with well-coupled layers showed improved absorption performance on account of the excellent impedance matching behavior of the Fe3O4 layer and the high microwave attenuation capability of the MXene/Fe3O4 layer. When the thickness of the matching layer filled with Fe3O4 was 0.1 mm and that of the absorption layer filled with MXene/Fe3O4 was 1.9 mm, a maximum reflection loss of −48.7 dB was achieved at 9.9 GHz. More importantly, when the thicknesses of the matching and absorption layers were 0.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively, the effective bandwidth was nearly 3.9 GHz. The double-layer absorbers with enhanced absorption properties may be regarded as a new generation of materials for electromagnetic wave absorption.

Introduction There is an urgent demand for new types of electromagnetic (EM) wave-absorbing materials in defense for the latest stealth technology. Microwave absorbers can attenuate EM waves and decrease radar signals, thus allowing targets to survive under radar detection [1, 2]. An ideal microwave-absorbing material should need the characteristics of thin thickness, lightweight, great absorption, and wide bandwidth [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. However, some scientists have pointed out that the absorbers with a single component and a structure were hard to satisfy the demand for superior microwave absorption ability [8, 9, 10]. Thus, interest in composites or hybrid materials has increased because the individual components of such materials play cooperative roles to