Effects of mixing and clustering properties on hybrid carbon/glass fibers polymer/composite for effective applications

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Effects of mixing and clustering properties on hybrid carbon/glass fibers polymer/composite for effective applications Jing Pan 1 & Lichun Bian 1 & Ming Gao 1 Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 July 2020 # Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Abstract The hybrid carbon/glass fiber polymer possesses an interesting balance in properties that the drawbacks of one fiber can be balanced out by the virtues of the other. The mixing and clustering of hybrid fibers have a significant effect on the elastic modulus of materials. In this paper, a new micromechanics model is proposed to study the effective elastic modulus of hybrid composite with agglomerated carbon and glass fibers. Three types of fiber dispersion or aggregation forms are proposed to present new relations for a hybrid composite that contains carbon and glass fibers. The Mori–Tanaka method and Voigt and Reuss theory are modified to analyze the aggregation effect of hybrid fibers. The analytical expressions for the effective elastic modulus of hybrid fiber–reinforced composites are defined, which consider the fiber agglomeration effect. It is found that the effective properties are very sensitive to the dispersion state and agglomeration degree of hybrid fibers. Keywords Carbon fiber . Glass fiber . Agglomeration . Hybrid composites

Introduction The carbon fibers or their reinforced composites have many outstanding material properties, which make them a popular choice for lightweight and high-performance applications. Some researches for that case were based on the micromechanics theory, and to date, the influence coefficients on fiber-reinforced composites have been given special attention. The carbon fibers are too costly for their applications; therefore, a combination of glass fiber with carbon fiber is required to get the assured mechanical properties [1, 2]. Moreover, the microstructure drawbacks, such as clustering of fibers and various distributions of fibers in clusters, the poor dispersion and waviness of fibers, and weak bonding between matrix and fiber, can decline the mechanical properties of composites [3–6]. On the other hand, it is also widely recognized that the experimental mechanical properties of carbon fiber–reinforced composites are quite different from the

* Lichun Bian [email protected] 1

Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, People’s Republic of China

theoretical expectations [7, 8]. Therefore, it is important to determine the effect of these defects on the effective properties of hybrid carbon fiber- and glass fiber–reinforced composites. Over the years, the hybrid fiber effect has been investigated numerically and experimentally [9, 10]. Swolfs et al. [1] demonstrated that the critical cluster size is a function of the hybrid fiber volume fraction. Moreover, the addition of glass fibers to a carbon fiber composite increases the failure strain of the composi