Kinetics of the formation and doping of silicon nanocrystals

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RESEARCH PAPER

Kinetics of the formation and doping of silicon nanocrystals Sergey V. Bulyarskiy

&

Vyacheslav V. Svetukhin

Received: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 # Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Abstract Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC) in silicon oxide is a promising material for many applications in micro- and nanoelectronics. This article develops a theory of the kinetics of Si-NC formation when there are both diffusion and reaction mechanisms of their formation. The theoretical expressions obtained for changing the concentration of nanocrystals and silicon implanted in oxide and their sizes are consistent with experimental results and can be used to optimize the formation conditions of technological processes of Si-NC formation. An important modern problem is the doping of nanocrystals with impurities, which allows the creation of silicon Si-NC–emitting light, and are also objects for solar energy. We have shown that nanocrystals with sizes less than 5 nm are limited by the potential barrier that creates surface tension. Thermodynamic calculations showed that there is a critical size of the Si-NC and if it is smaller, then it is impossible to introduce an impurity into it. These calculations were performed for doping silicon with phosphorus and tin.

S. V. Bulyarskiy (*) Institute of Nanotechnology of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia e-mail: [email protected] V. V. Svetukhin Scientific-Manufacturing Complex “Technological Centre”, Zelenograd, Moscow, Russia

Keywords Silicon nanocrystals . Formation kinetics . Formation conditions . Nanocrystal radius . Thermodynamics of impurity solubility

Introduction Silicon is the most sought-after material in electronics. I leadership is undeniable, however, there are restrictions on the use of this material. Silicon is a material with indirect transitions, the conduction band is the valence band, and therefore silicon single crystals do not emit light. The absorption of light by silicon is in the near infrared region of the spectrum, therefore, shortwavelength receivers based on it are also not effective and this range should be increased. Other beneficial uses of silicon are limited. Expanding the application of silicon is an important scientific and commercial task. In this regard, a new direction of nanocrystals electronics has arisen and is currently developing. Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) expand the application of silicon in the sensor industry, solar energy, and silicon photonics (Silicon photonics 2004; Marri et al. 2017). Their use is growing in several broad fields such as microelectronics (Talapin et al. 2010; Gupta et al. 2011), photonics (Daldosso and Pavesi 2009), non-linear optics, secure communications (Bisadi et al. 2015), photovoltaics, in the so-called third-generation solar cells, solar fuels (Priolo et al. 2014; Nozik 2010; Conibeer et al. 2011; Mangolini 2013; Löper et al. 2013; Summonte et al. 2014), thermoelectrics (Dresselhaus et al. 2007; Claudio

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