Landslide Disaster Mitigation in Three Gorges Reservoir, China

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wu Wang · Tonglu Li (Eds.)

Landslide Disaster Mitigation in Three Gorges Reservoir, China

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Editors Dr. Fawu Wang Kyoto University Disaster Prevention Research Inst. Research Centre on Landslides Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 Japan [email protected]

Prof. Tonglu Li Chang’an University School of Geological Engineering and Geomatics No.126 Yanta Road Xi’an 710054 People’s Republic of China [email protected]

ISSN 1863-5520 ISBN 978-3-642-00131-4 e-ISBN 978-3-642-00132-1 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-00132-1 Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2009920521 c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009  This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Cover design: Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

Foreword

The purpose of the Three Gorges project is to construct a large dam, forming a large-scale water reservoir in the valley. When the final design reservoir water level is reached, the length of the reservoir will be longer than 660 km, which extends from the dam site at Sandouping town to Maoer-Xia Gorge in Chongqing City. The reservoir crosses the low–medium mountainous area consisting of the fold zone from Sinian system to Mesozoic Erathem, which is distributed in Hubei Province, Hunan Province, Yunnan Province and Chongqing City, to the low mountainous area formed by the fold zone ranging from the Triassic to the Jurassic Periods, which is distributed in the eastern part of Chongqing City. Generally, the reservoir area can be divided into two parts. The eastern part is from Sandouping town to Baidicheng in Fengjie County, with a length of 160 km. In this part, three portions consisting of limestone formed the narrow Three Gorges. Between the Three Gorges are two portions consisting of clastic rocks forming wide valleys. At the dam site are the Pre-Sinian System crystal rocks. In the Three Gorges parts, thick bulk limestone and dolomite are mainly distributed, sandwiching thin layers of sandstone and shale. The mountain height at the gorge areas is about 600–1,200 m, and the width at those areas is only 200–300 m. The geomorphology characterized by high mountains and deep v