Mathematical Modeling of Decarburization in Levitated Fe-Cr-C Droplets
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SUSPENSION in space with an electromagnetic ﬁeld via electromagnetic levitation (EML) has many significant advantages compared to traditional crucible techniques. Suspended materials can be heated due to the Joule eﬀect and melted without the need of a container. This technique has been a widely used tool for research activities in areas pertaining to materials science and metallurgical engineering. Numerous studies measuring physical properties of diﬀerent materials have been conducted using EML.[2–4] In metallurgical engineering, EML mainly serves as a method to investigate thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of gas–metal interactions associated with pyrometallurgical operations at
LEI GAO, is with the Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Complex Non-Ferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650093, China and also with the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Process Metallurgy and Research Labs (PMRL), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E4, Canada, ZHE SHI and GUIFANG ZHANG are with the Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Complex Non-Ferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology. YINDONG YANG, DONGHUI LI, ALEXANDER McLEAN, and KINNOR CHATTOPADHYAY are with the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Process Metallurgy and Research Labs (PMRL), University of Toronto. Contact e-mail: [email protected] Manuscript submitted May 6, 2016.
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B
elevated temperatures. As a result, this method has drawn the interest of many research groups attempting to commercialize the knowledge. McLean described eﬀorts to better understand reactions at the gas–metal interfaces. Many diﬀerent projects relating to gas–metal reactions were conducted, namely, the reaction in which molten steel droplets were levitated and exposed to atmospheres of controlled oxygen potential.[6,7] Through these projects, the interaction parameters which describe the eﬀects of alloying elements, such as chromium and vanadium on the activity coeﬃcients of oxygen were determined. In another example, droplets of Fe-Cr-S were levitated and exposed to atmospheres of H2-H2S that allowed manipulation of the sulfur potential in the gas phase, and the activity of sulfur in the alloy droplets. Other studies by diﬀerent researchers have also made important contributions to the ﬁeld. For example, Siwka et al. used nitrogen as an alloy addition, increasing the strength of the steel in high nitrogen steel production. An EML facility was developed to investigate the dissolution of nitrogen in liquid iron, various iron alloy droplets at diﬀerent temperatures and pressures.[9,10] Beaudhuin and Wu investigated the impurity concentration in silicon droplets by controlling the partial pressure of nitrogen and hydrocarbon gas separately.[11,12] A major objective in these works is to generate fundamental information