Metallurgy of Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Silicon belongs to VIa group of the Periodic Table of Elements, atomic number 14, atomic mass 28.08, electron shell configuration 3s23p2, exhibits oxidation state +4 (the most stable), +3, +2 and +1. The melting point of silicon is 1415 °C; the boiling po

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Mikhail Gasik Viktor Dashevskii Aitber Bizhanov

Ferroalloys Theory and Practice

Topics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Series Editor Carlos P. Bergmann, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

“Topics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering” welcomes manuscripts in these three main focus areas: Extractive Metallurgy/Mineral Technology; Manufacturing Processes, and Materials Science and Technology. Manuscripts should present scientific solutions for technological problems. The three focus areas have a vertically lined multidisciplinarity, starting from mineral assets, their extraction and processing, their transformation into materials useful for the society, and their interaction with the environment.

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Mikhail Gasik Viktor Dashevskii Aitber Bizhanov •

Ferroalloys Theory and Practice


Mikhail Gasik National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine Dnipro, Ukraine

Viktor Dashevskii Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia

Aitber Bizhanov J.C. Steele & Sons Inc Moscow, Russia

ISSN 2364-3293 ISSN 2364-3307 (electronic) Topics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering ISBN 978-3-030-57501-4 ISBN 978-3-030-57502-1 (eBook) © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

The book is dedicated to our fellow metallurgists victims of the coronavirus pandemic.


The final stage of the preparation of the manuscript of this book took place in unusual conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has hit the world and has already claimed the lives of many, m