Study on the Thermal Runaway and Its Propagation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low Pressure

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Study on the Thermal Runaway and Its Propagation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low Pressure Huaibin Wang and Qinzheng Wang, China People’s Police University, Langfang, China Huaibin Wang, Zhiming Du *, Ling Liu, Zelin Zhang, Jinyuan Hao and Shuang Wang, State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China Received: 19 September 2019/Accepted: 1 February 2020

Abstract. When lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are located at high altitude and low pressure,the characteristics of thermal runaway (TR) and its propagation are different,such as time to TR, the toxicity of TR gases, TR propagation time, mass loss rate, etc. In this article, the author summarized a series of relevant literatures and proposed an instrument that can be used to analyse the TR behavior at different pressure. It is found that: with the decrease of ambient pressure, the TR trigger time becomes longer and the maximum surface temperature decrease. Moreover, the gas released by TR becomes more toxic as the environmental pressure decreases. Beside, the average propagation time between adjacent LIBs is not much difference when the environmental pressure decreases, and when the 18,650 battery module is distributed in a cylindrical shape, the thermal runaway propagation path is basically unchanged as the environmental pressure decreases. This work details TR and its propagation feature under different pressure, and can provide the guidelines for the Air transportation of LIBs. Keywords: Low-pressure, LIBs, Thermal runaway, Thermal runaway propagation Abbreviations LIB FAA TR FED ppm

Lithium-ion battery Federal Aviation Administration Thermal runaway Fractional effective dose Parts per million

List of Symbols T1 T2 Tmax

Self-generated heat temperature (C) Temperature of thermal runaway (C) Maximum temperature of thermal runaway (C)

*Correspondence should be addressed to: Zhiming Du, E-mail: [email protected]


Fire Technology 2020 Tmax-surface NCM tTR TTR Tvalve Dti# - (i + 1)#

Maximum temperature of surface Li (NixCoy Mnz) O2 Time of thermal runaway (s) Temperature of during thermal runaway (C) Temperature of valve (C) The time of thermal runaway propagation interval (s)

1. Introduction Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is widely used in the field of energy storage and conversion because of its greatly improved energy density, no memory effect, long cycle life and low environmental pollution [1–4]. As the market for LIB technology continues to grow in every fields, the quantity of air transportation increase year by year. The data of the (2017–2021 China LIB Industry Investment Analysis And Outlook Forecast Report) released by CIC advisors shows that [5, 6]: China’s foreign trade volume of LIB reached 3.1 billion in 2015, and the trend has been increasing year by year. According to the statistics of CAAC, the number of equipment and LIBs transported by Chinese airlines accounted for 87.5% of the total transportation of dangerous goods in 2015, and the volume of transportation could reach 223,000 tons [7–