Synthesis of Magnetic Recoverable Ag 3 PO 4 /Fe 3 O 4 Composites For Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalysis

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ORIGINAL PAPER

Synthesis of Magnetic Recoverable Ag3PO4/Fe3O4 Composites For Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalysis Luı´s J. Silva1 • Tadeu M. S. Costa2 • Maciel S. Lima2 • Joa˜o F. Cruz Filho2 • Maria J. S. Costa2 Marcos V. R. Ferreira2 • Francielle R. Martins2 • Reginaldo S. Santos2 • Geraldo E. Luz Jr1,2



Received: 17 April 2020  Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Abstract This work presents results of synthesis and characterization of Ag3PO4 and Fe3O4 as well as the AgP-Mag1 and AgP-Mag2 composites. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) elucidated the formation of the composites. Ag3PO4 has a body centered cubic structure with high crystallinity. The UV–Vis and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicate that a synergistic interaction occurs between Ag3PO4 and Fe3O4. The vibration sample magnetometry analysis showed the magnetic behavior of the composites through the hysteresis curves. Photocatalytic activities performed at 120 min evidenced significant results for degradation of Rhodamine-B dye (RhB) using Ag3PO4, AgP-Mag1 and AgP-Mag2 composites (98%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). In addition, the catalytic cycles revealed that the photocatalytic efficiency of the composite was preserved over that of the pure semiconductor, and 100% degradation of the dye at 120 min could be obtained in the third catalytic cycle. The toxicity studies demonstrated that photodegradation products did not have genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity, indicating that RhB was degraded into carbon dioxide and water or into other nontoxic products. Keywords Ag3PO4  Composites  RhB  Photodegradation  Polychromatic irradiation List of symbols eElectrons h? Holes MS Saturation magnetization MR Remanent magnetization HC Coercivity RhB Rhodamine B

Introduction Water is an indispensable resource to maintain life on Earth, and its pollution is a huge concern [1]. Contamination of water resources by industrial processes stands out due to the large amount of solid and liquid wastes that is & Geraldo E. Luz Jr [email protected] 1

PPGQ-DQ, Federal University of Piauı´-UFPI, 64049-550 Teresina-PI, Brazil

2

PPGQ-GERATEC-DQ-State University of Piauı´, Joa˜o Cabral Street. N. 2231, PO BOX 381, 64.002-150 Teresina-PI, Brazil

dumped into the nearest water bodies [2, 3]. Therefore, the presence of organic compounds, such as antibiotics and dyes, in treatment stations is a major concern, because such pollutants can interfere with the biological cycles that are essential for maintaining aquatic life [3]. Among the pollutants mentioned, the presence of synthetic dyes has attracted the attention of the scientific community because they are carcinogenic and mutagenic plus reduce the penetration of sunlight, directly influencing processes such as oxygenation of waters [4–6]. Rhodamine B (RhB) is one of the dyes most used by the textile industry [7]. This dye when in contact with skin and respiratory tract causes irritation, mutation, or carcinogenic activity in living or

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