Transmission Line Protection Using Digital Technology

This book develops novel digital distance relaying schemes to eliminate the errors produced by the conventional digital distance relays while protecting power transmission lines against different types of faults. These include high resistance ground fault

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Vijay H. Makwana Bhavesh R. Bhalja

Transmission Line Protection Using Digital Technology 123

Energy Systems in Electrical Engineering Series editor Muhammad H. Rashid, Pensacola, USA

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Vijay H. Makwana Bhavesh R. Bhalja •

Transmission Line Protection Using Digital Technology


Vijay H. Makwana Electrical Engineering Department G H Patel College of Engineering and Technology Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat India

Bhavesh R. Bhalja Electrical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Roorkee, Uttarakhand India

ISSN 2199-8582 ISSN 2199-8590 (electronic) Energy Systems in Electrical Engineering ISBN 978-981-10-1571-7 ISBN 978-981-10-1572-4 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-1572-4 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016942025 © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer Science+Business Media Singapore Pte Ltd.

Dedicated to my wife Manisha and son Tirth for their patience and encouragement —Vijay H. Makwana Dedicated to my wife Jital, and sons Ansh and Harsh for being a part of my life. —Bhavesh R. Bhalja


Extra High Voltage (EHV) and Ultra High Voltage (UHV) transmission lines are mostly used to transmit bulk power over long distances. Nowadays, series compensated transmission lines are widely used in power systems to improve system stability, increase transmittable power, reduce transmission losses, and increase loading capacity of the transmission line. Normally, such types of transmission lines are protected by digital/numerical distance relays as these relays can realize some very useful functions such as long-term storage of pre-fault data, multiple setting groups, programmable adaptive logic, and sequence-of-events recording. However, the digital distance relays do not have successful solutions to