A new approach to optimize the synthesis parameters of TiO 2 microsphere and development of photocatalytic performance

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A new approach to optimize the synthesis parameters of TiO2 microsphere and development of photocatalytic performance Fatma Kılıc¸ Dokan1,*

and Mehmet Kuru2

1

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Processing Technologies, Mustafa Çıkrıkcıog˘lu Vocational School, Kayseri University, Kayseri, Turkey 2 Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55200 Samsun, Turkey

Received: 16 July 2020

ABSTRACT

Accepted: 5 November 2020

In this study, Titanium (IV) Oxide (TiO2) microspheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and Cerium Oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in the ratios of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mol% were loaded onto these microparticles by surfactantassisted (Pluronic 123) sol–gel method. The crystal properties and surface morphology of the synthesized TiO2–CeO2 hybrid photocatalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Bond structures and surface areas were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and Brunauer–Emmett– Teller (BET) analysis, respectively. XRD patterns with (101) and (200) main planes show that nanoparticles have anatase TiO2 phase. Also, A1g, B1g and Eg Raman modes confirms anatase TiO2 phase. In addition, with CeO2 doping, while the average crystallite size of nanoparticles decreased, their surface area increased. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by degradation of the methylene blue (MB) under UV light (k = 365 nm). The results showed that the surface area and crystal structure of hybrid structure and interface interaction between TiO2 and CeO2 have a significant effect on photocatalytic performance. The 0.1% CeO2–TiO2 photocatalyst degraded almost 95% of the MB solution in about 60 min, while for TiO2 microspheres this value is around 80%. Also, we observed that 0.1% CeO2–TiO2 led to about 1.4 times higher reaction rate in comparison to TiO2. Results showed that the hybrid photocatalysts has a higher performance than bare TiO2 microspheres.

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Springer Science+Business

Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Address correspondence to E-mail: [email protected]

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-04845-y

J Mater Sci: Mater Electron

1 Introduction In recent years, the mixing of dyes, which are widely used in the plastic, paper, rubber, and textile industry, to the clean water sources without treatment causes serious environmental pollution [1]. Nitrogen compounds are most of the synthetic organic dyes used in the textile industry. Due to the complex chemical structure of these nitrogenous organic dyes, it is challenging to break down spontaneously under day light. Also, because of the complex aromatic nature of these compounds, their resistance increases to other chemicals, light, temperature, and environmental factors. Besides, since these substances are toxic and carcinogenic, effective purification of water sources is of great importance for both human and environmental health [2]. Due to