Carbon Nanomaterials for Energy Efficient Green Electronics

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Carbon Nanomaterials for Energy Efficient Green Electronics Anupama B. Kaul (invited paper) Division of Electrical, Communications and Cyber Systems, Engineering Directorate, National Science Foundation, Arlington VA 22203 Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT Developing energy efficient electronics or green electronics is an area that is largely driven by the performance limitations of scaled Si-based CMOS due to the exceptionally high power dissipation and high leakage currents arising in such devices at nanoscale dimensions. It is clear now that Si-based CMOS has been stretched over the past several decades to the point that further miniaturization will make such simple size scaling non-sustainable in the future. New materials and technologies are thus vigorously being explored beyond Si, in order to overcome performance limitations from ultra-miniaturized Si-CMOS. Among these materials, carbonbased nanostructures such as graphene and carbon nanotubes are being considered as viable alternatives to Si-CMOS to enable energy efficient green electronics. Novel architectures for enabling low-power, energy-efficient computation are currently being explored, which include tunneling field-effect-transistors (TFETs), as well as nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) due to their abrupt ON/OFF transitions, low OFF state currents and high speed operation. In this paper, an overview of carbon nanomaterials is presented and the role they play in enabling energy efficient TFETs and NEMS is also highlighted. Finally, the emergence of a new class of 2D systems beyond graphene is discussed such as MoS2, which may open up new avenues for exploration and enabling applications in electronics. INTRODUCTION The semiconductor industry based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) Silicon (Si) transistors faces major obstacles to continued scaling according to Moore’s law. Such performance limitations arise from physical scaling limits with gate dielectrics that are 1 - 2 (nm) in thickness, as well as source-drain channel lengths which will soon approach 10 nm by 2016. New materials and novel logic devices are thus vigorously being explored beyond Si, in order to overcome performance limitation issues that are now impeding Si transistor scaling.1 Among these materials, carbon-based nanostructures are gaining increasing attention from the semiconductor industry as viable alternatives to traditional materials used in the Si integratedcircuit (IC) industry. Such materials include the exploration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), Y-junctions, graphene and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), which either enable new device functionality or enhance the performance of established architectures in electronics. Besides transistor applications,2,3,4,5 the remarkable properties of carbon-based nanostructures6 has stirred intense interest in considering these materials for a variety of other applications ranging from rf electronics,7,8 interconnects,9 ultra-capacitors,10 biosensors,11 stretchable electronics,12 thermo-electrics,13 pho

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