Discovering Reality Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysi

Are Western epistemology, metaphysics, methodology and the philosophy of science grounded only in men's distinctive understandings of themselves, others, and nature? Does this less than human understanding distort our models of reason and of scientific in

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SYNTHESE LIBRARY

STUDIES IN EPISTEMOLOGY, LOGIC, METHODOLOGY, AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Managing Editor: JAAKKO HINTIKKA, Florida State University, Tallahassee

Editors: DONALD DAVIDSON, University of California, Berkeley GABRIËL NUCHELMANS, University of Leyden WESLEY C. SALMON, University of Pittsburgh

VOLUME 161

DISCOVERING REALITY Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science

Edited by SANDRA HARDING Dept. of Philosophy, University of Delaware

and MERRILL B. HINTIKKA Dept. of Philosophy, Florida State University

KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS NEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW

eBook ISBN: Print ISBN:

0-306-48017-4 90-277-1496-7

©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow Print ©1983 Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht All rights reserved No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher Created in the United States of America Visit Kluwer Online at: and Kluwer's eBookstore at:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SANDRA HARDING AND MERRILL B. HINTIKKA / Introduction

ix

LYNDA LANGE / Woman Is Not a Rational Animal: On Aristotle’s

Biology of Reproduction

1

ELIZABETH V. SPELMAN / Aristotle and the Politicization of the

Soul

17

JUDITH HICKS STIEHM / The Unit of Political Analysis: Our

Aristotelian Hangover RUTH HUBBARD / Have Only Men Evolved? MICHAEL GROSS AND MARY BETH AVERILL / Evolution and

Patriarchal Myths of Scarcity and Competition

31 45 71

ANN PALMERI / Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Forerunner of a

Feminist Social Science

97

LOUISE MARCIL-LACOSTE / The Trivialization of the Notion of

Equality

121

MERRILL B. HINTIKKA AND JAAKKO HINTIKKA / How Can

Language Be Sexist?

139

JANICE MOULTON / A Paradigm of Philosophy: The Adversary

Method KATHRYN PYNE ADDELSON / The Man of Professional Wisdom EVELYN FOX KELLER / Gender and Science EVELYN FOX KELLER AND CHRISTINE R. GRONTKOWSKI /

The Mind’s Eye NAOMI SCHEMAN / Individualism and the Objects of Psychology JANE FLAX / Political Philosophy and the Patriarchal Unconscious:

A Psychoanalytic Perspective on Epistemology and Metaphysics

149 165 187 207 225 245

NANCY C. M. HARTSOCK / The Feminist Standpoint: Developing

the Ground for a Specifically Feminist Historical Materialism

283

SANDRA HARDING / Why Has the Sex/Gender System Become

Visible Only Now? INDEX OF NAMES

311 325

We dedicate this volume to the memory of Jane English, whose brilliance, inspiration, courage and warmth are sorely missed by her colleagues in philosophy and by her friends.

SANDRA HARDING AND MERRILL B. HINTIKKA

INTRODUCTION

During the last decade, feminist research has attempted to add understandings of women and their social activities to what we all thought we knew about nature and social life. However, from the very beginning of this project, it has appeared to be in tension with some of the most fundamen

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