Expanded Program on Immunization

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Victor R. Preedy, Ronald R. Watson (Eds.)

Handbook of Disease Burdens and Quality of Life Measures

With 570 Figures and 1001 Tables

Editors: Prof. Victor R. Preedy Dept. Nutrition and Dietetics Nutritional Sciences Research Division School of Biomedical & Health Sciences King’s College London Franklin‐Wilkins Building 150 Stamford Street London SE1 9NH UK Prof. Ronald R. Watson Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health University of Arizona Health Science Center 1295 N. Martin P.O. Box 245155 Tucson, AZ 85724–5155

ISBN–13: 978–0–387–78664–3 This publication is available also as: Electronic publication under 978–0–387–78665–0 and Print and electronic bundle under ISBN 978–0–387–78666–7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2009927296 ß Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010 (USA) All rights are reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaption, computer software, or similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Product liability: The publishers cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information about the application of operative techniques and medications contained in this book. In every individual case the user must check such information by consulting the relevant literature. springer.com Printed on acid‐free paper

SPIN: 11980131

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Disease and pathologies have devastating consequences on the individual, the family unit and society in general including effect on nations or entire geographical regions. Assessing these impacts at the individual or international level has been problematical due to the diverse nature of the diseases themselves. There is also a variable response between individuals or regions. However, there is now an increasing awareness that the imposition of disease or ill health can be measured and assessed in quantitative terms. These measures of disease encompass a variety of facets: from the financial costs of treatment to the effects of a particular disease condition on the quality of life of individuals. The development and application of tools to measure these aspects have been particularly evident over the past decade. For example, suitable questionnaires developed for the general assessment of Quality of Life have now been revised and refined so that they are directly applicable to specific disease entities or even different cultures. Hitherto, there has never been a coherent publication that allocated to a single volume the many questionnaires that have been developed nor