Fabrication and Nonlinear Optical Characterization of Well-Ordered Nanopillar Arrays

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Fabrication and Nonlinear Optical Characterization of Well-Ordered Nanopillar Arrays Chun-Wen Kuo, Shuo-Wen Wu and Peilin Chen* Institute of Applied Science and Engineering Research, Academia Sinica, 128, Section 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan

Abstract Size-controllable nanostructure fabrication has drawn much of research attention lately, because it may allow the tuning of optical, magnetic, catalytic and electric transport properties of materials. To achieve this goal, we need to investigate the size dependent behavior of materials. The most popular method for size-controlled nanostructure fabrication is e-beam lithography. However, e-beam lithography is not an efficient process for large area fabrication. We report here a novel method to produce large area, well-ordered, size-controlled nanopillar arrays. Nanopillar arrays are among the most studied nanostructures because of their potential applications in photonic crystals, data storage, and sensors. To fabricate nanopillar arrays, we have employed both single layer and double layer nanosphere lithography. Nanosphere lithography, which uses the close packed structure formed by monodispersed colloidal particles as template, is known to produce large area, well-ordered nanostructures on substrate surfaces. These nanostructures have been utilized as the masks in the reactive ion etching process. By carefully controlling the gas composition and etching time, various sizes of nanopillar arrays have been produced. To characterize the optical properties of these nanopillar arrays, surface nonlinear spectroscopy has been used to investigate the size dependent response of nanopillar arrays.


It has drawn lots of research attention in the development of size-controllable nanostructure fabrication, because size-controlled nanofabrication may enable us to modify the optical[1], magnetic[2], catalytic[3] and electric transport [4] properties of materials. To realize such application potential, it requires systematic investigation of the size dependent properties of nanostructured materials. Therefore, it is very important to develop inexpensive, large-scale nanofabrication techniques for the study of size dependent behavior. To produce


nanostructures with satisfactory size control in the sub-100nm region, e-beam lithography is the most popular method. However, it is not practical to employ e-beam lithography for large-scale fabrication. Self-organization process, on the other hand, provides an alternative approach to fabricate large-area nanostructures with sufficient size control [5]. It has been demonstrate that both two-dimensional [6-11] and three-dimensional [12-14] crystalline structures can be obtained on the substrate surfaces using monodispersed colloid solutions. These crystalline structures can then serve as the templates for nanostructure manufacture [15-16]. In this article, we report the development of a novel fabrication technique that can produce various sizes of well-ordered periodic nanopillar arrays. Period