Handbook of Composites

The development of advanced composites, tion. Forecasts indicate that the potential spanning a brief period from inception to usage in automobiles in the early 1990's will application of only 15 to 20 years, epitomizes amount to millions of pounds of adva

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HANDBOOK OF COMPOSITES

Edited by

George Lubin CONSULTANT

Formerly-Chief Scientist Grumman Aerospace Corporation

W

Sponsored by the Society of Plastics Engineers

VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD COMPANY NEW YORK

CINCINNATI

TORONTO

LONDON

MELBOURNE

Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Regional Offices: New York Cincinnati Van Nostrand Reinhold Company International Offices: London Toronto Melbourne Copyright e 1982 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 1982 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 81-10341 ISBN-13: 978-1-4615-7141-4 001: 10.1007/978-1-4615-7139-1

e-ISBN-13: 978-1-4615-7139-1

All rights reserved. Certain portions of this work copyright C) 1969 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company'Inc. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means-graphic, electronic. or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems-without permission of the publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America Published by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. 135 West 50th Street, New York, N.Y. 10020 Published simultaneously in Canada by Van Nostrand Reinhold Ltd. 15

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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Handbook of composites. (A Society of Plastics Engineers technical monograph) A follow on text to Handbook of fiberglass and advanced plastics composites. 1969. Includes index. I. Composite materials-Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Fibrous composites-Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Lubin, George. II. Handbook of fiberglass and advanced plastics composites. III. Series: Society of Plastics Engineers technical monograph. 620.1'18 81-10341 TA418.9.C6H33 i91U

FOREWORD

The development of advanced composites, tion. Forecasts indicate that the potential spanning a brief period from inception to usage in automobiles in the early 1990's will application of only 15 to 20 years, epitomizes amount to millions of pounds of advanced the rapidity with which a generation's change composites. We find ourselves in a peculiar position. in the state-of-the-art can take place. This is in marked contrast to past history, in which it The hardware capability is progressing so has usually required 25 years or more of rapidly that the knowledge and familiarity of research before a new structural material was the designer can hardly keep pace. We have an technologically ready. obligation now not just to mature this adIn the mid-1950's the U.S. Air Force identi- vanced technology and its applications, but fied the promise for early application of a new also to communicate the state-of-the-art to the class of materials-advanced composites- designer in a form in which it can be applied and established its feasibility by the fabrication readily to practical structures. I believe that of raw fiber with exceptional strength- and this book, Handbook of Composites, will modulus-to-weight ratios. The practical fabrica- clearly provide a portion