Learning and Instruction in the Digital Age

Instruction tailored to the individual student, learning and teaching outside the limits of time and space—ideas that were once considered science fiction are now educational reality, with the prospect of an intelligent Web 3.0 not far distant. Alongside

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Learning and Instruction in the Digital Age 123

Learning and Instruction in the Digital Age

J. Michael Spector · Dirk Ifenthaler · Pedro Isaías · Kinshuk · Demetrios Sampson Editors

Learning and Instruction in the Digital Age


Editors J. Michael Spector University of Georgia Learning & Performance Support Lab. 605 Aderhold Hall Athens GA 30602 USA [email protected] Pedro Isaías Universidade Aberta Rua de Junqueria 86 1300-344 Lisboa Palacio Burnay Portugal pisaí[email protected]

Dirk Ifenthaler Universit¨at Freiburg Abt. Lernforschung Rempartstr. 11 79085 Freiburg Germany [email protected] Kinshuk Athabasca University Centre for Science Athabasca AB T9S 3A3 Canada [email protected] [email protected]

Demetrios Sampson Department of Technology in Education & Digital Systems University of Piraeus Androutsou St. 150 185 32 Piraeus Greece [email protected] [email protected]

ISBN 978-1-4419-1550-4 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-1551-1 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1551-1 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number: 2009943298 © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

We dedicate this volume to the future of learning and technology. We hope that the small steps taken in our generation will lead to giant steps forward in educating people all around the world.


Advances in both cognitive psychology and computing have affected the educational arena. The convergence of these two disciplines is increasing at a fast pace and affecting academia and professional practice in many ways. Paradigms such as just-in-time learning, constructivism, student-centered learning, and collaborative approaches have emerged and are being supported by technological advancements such as simulations, virtual reality, and multi-agents systems. These developments have created both opportunities and areas of serious concerns. The CELDA (Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age) have been targeting the convergence of advances in cognitive psychology and ICT (information and communications technologies), especially with regard to the implications for learning and instruction, for the last 6 years (http://www.celda-conf.org/). The chapters included in this edited volume were sele