Paulownia tomentosa derived porous carbon with enhanced sodium storage

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fei Lia) Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China; and Institute of Advanced Electrochemical Energy, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China

Hui Shan Institute of Advanced Clean Energy, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China

Dejun Lib) Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China

Xueliang Sunc) Nanomaterials and Energy Lab, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada; and Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China (Received 18 October 2017; accepted 14 November 2017)

Porous carbon derived from biomass materials with enrich, low cost, clean, and renewable merits, exhibits various physical and chemical properties. So, it is of great significance to rationally utilize biomass materials for producing porous carbon with low cost to reduce overusing fossil fuel and environmental pollution. In this report, porous carbon has been fabricated using fruits shells of the Paulownia tomentosa by a facile method of KOH-activation. The as-obtained porous carbon containing a larger number of micropores and slight mesopores possesses a high specific surface area (1914.4 m2/g) and well hierarchical porosity. As the anode for sodium ion batteries, the porous carbon sample displays superior cycling stability and rate capability, delivering a reversible specific capacity of 179 mA h/g at 50 mA/g after 100 cycles and a discharge specific capacity of 100 mA h/g at 1 A/g.

I. INTRODUCTION

Excessive consumption of fossil fuels has triggered a series of worldwide problems, such as resource shortage and environmental pollution. The study of replacing traditional fossil with friendly renewable energy, such as geothermal, solar, biomass, and ocean, has become an important topic. How to better apply these renewable and cleaner energies to large-scale energy storage systems (ESS) is a considerable challenge.1 In the early 1900s, the lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been first commercialized by Sony. Meanwhile, LIBs possess intrinsic performance such as high energy density, long cycle stability, Contributing Editor: Teng Zhai Address all correspondence to these authors. a) e-mail: xfl[email protected] b) e-mail: [email protected] c) e-mail: [email protected] DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2017.452

and environmentally friendly so that LIBs have become the primary candidates for ESS.2 Nevertheless, the shortage of lithium resource with the raising cost highly limits the industrial development of future LIBs. Therefore, exploiting new materials to replace lithium becomes the inevitable tendency for ESS. Sodium is the fourth most abundant element on the earth, belon