Silver(I) Coordination Polymers: Photocatalytic Properties and Enhanced Treatment Activity of Haloperidol on Children Ti

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Silver(I) Coordination Polymers: Photocatalytic Properties and Enhanced Treatment Activity of Haloperidol on Children Tic Disorder by Regulating Neurotransmitter Content Hui-Li Qian 1

&

Xin Yu 2 & Guo-Feng Liu 3

Received: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Abstract In this article, the characterization, synthesis, as well as the photocatalysis dye degradation performance of two novel silver(I) coordination polymers, namely, [Ag(L)(Hbdc)]n (1, L = 1,4-Bis(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazol-1-yl)butane, H2bdc = 1,4Benzenedicarboxylic acid) and [Ag2(L)(hip)]n (2, H2hip = 5-Hydroxyisophthalic acid), were investigated. Fascinatingly, the photocatalytic performance of Complexes 1 and 2 have been investigated, wherein Complex 2 is considered an excellent photocatalyst for degrading Rhodamine B/methyl violet/methylene blue mixed organic dyes. Furthermore, the treatment activities of Complexes 1 and 2 on Tic disorder (TD) were assessed when used with haloperidol, and biochemical studies were conducted to reveal the mechanism in detail. Initially, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to determine the dopamine and high vanillic acid contents in the striatum of the TD animal model. Subsequently, the reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction was utilized to determine the relative expression of dopamine 1 and 2 receptor. Keywords Coordination polymer . Single crystal X-ray . Photocatalysis . Tic disorder

Introduction Numerous scientific studies on Tic disorder (TD) have been conducted; however, the etiology of TD is still unclear, and the causes of tic symptoms cannot be understood accurately [1]. Genetic factors play crucial roles in the etiology of TD; as reported, parents of more than 50% of children with TD may also have experienced tic, thereby indicating the significant function of genetic factors in pathogenesis [2, 3]. In addition, many biochemical studies have revealed that the neurotransmitters in children with TD may be disturbed. For example, an increased level of dopamine in the striatum of children with TD, which is known as one of its etiology theories, was

* Hui-Li Qian [email protected] 1

Department of Pediatrics (II), Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China

2

Department of Rehabilitation, Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, China

3

Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Jining, Shandong, China

observed [4]. Nevertheless, the etiology and pathogenesis of tics are unclear and must be explored further. In recent decades, the design, as well as assembly, of Coordination polymers (CPs) with fascinating structures has attracted chemists’ interests in the fields of crystal engineering and supramolecular chemistry [5–7]. The multifarious structures of CPs have confirmed their great latent capacity when applied in the fields of electrochemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, gas separation and storage, luminescence, ion exchange, magnetism, as well as drug delivery [8–12]. The metal clusters an