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Rolfe D. Mandel Robert S. Sternberg


Edited by Allan S. Gilbert

E N C Y C L O P E D I A of



Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GEOARCHAEOLOGY Volume Editor Allan S. Gilbert is Professor of Anthropology at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. He holds a B.A. from Rutgers University, and his M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. in anthropology were earned at Columbia University. His areas of research interest include the Near East (late prehistory and early historic periods) as well as the Middle Atlantic region of the USA. (historical archaeology). His specializations are in archaeozoology of the Near East and geoarchaeology, especially mineralogy and compositional analysis of pottery and building materials. Publications have covered a range of subjects, including ancient pastoralism, faunal quantification, skeletal microanatomy, brick geochemistry, and two co-edited volumes on the marine geology and geoarchaeology of the Black Sea basin.

Associate Editors Paul Goldberg Department of Archaeology Emeritus at Boston University 675 Commonwealth Ave Boston, MA 02215, USA [email protected] Vance T. Holliday Departments of Anthropology and Geosciences University of Arizona 210030 Tucson, AZ 85721-0030, USA [email protected]

Rolfe D. Mandel Department of Anthropology University of Kansas 1415 Jayhawk Blvd 622 Fraser Hall Lawrence, KS 66045, USA [email protected] Robert S. Sternberg Department of Geosciences Franklin and Marshall College 3003 Lancaster, PA 17604-3003, USA [email protected]

Advisory Editors Zenobia Jacobs School of Environmental and Earth Sciences University of Wollongong Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia

R.E. Taylor, Emeritus, Department of Anthropology University of California at Riverside, Riverside CA, USA

Panagiotis Karkanas Ephoreia of Palaeoanthropology & Speleology of Southern Greece Athens, Greece

Claudio Vita-Finzi Natural History Museum South Hill Park, London, UK

Joseph Schuldenrein Geoarchaeology Research Associates Yonkers, NY, USA

Jamie Woodward Geography, School of Environment and Development The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

Sarah C. Sherwood University of the South Sewanee, TN, USA

Aims of the Series The Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of all the main areas in the Earth Sciences. Each volume comprises a focused and carefully chosen collection of contributions from leading names in the subject, with copious illustrations and reference lists. These books represent one of the world’s leading resources for the Earth Sciences community. Previous volumes are being updated and new works published so that the volumes will continue to be essential reading for all professional earth scientists, geologists, geophysicists, climatologists, and oceanographers as well as for teachers and students. Go to http:// to visit the “Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series” online.

About the Series Editor Prof