The Physics of Micro/Nano-Fabrication
In this revised and expanded edition, the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the tools, technologies, and physical models needed to understand, build, and analyze microdevices. Students, specialists within the field, and researchers in related fi
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Physics and Fabrication Technologies Series Editors: Ivor Brodie and Julius J. Murayt SRI International Menlo Park, California
ELECTRON AND ION OPTICS Miklos Szilagyi GaAs DEVICES AND CIRCUITS Michael Shur ORIENTED CRYSTALLIZATION ON AMORPHOUS SUBSTRATES E. I. Givargizov THE PHYSICS OF MICRO/ NANO-FABRICATION Ivor Brodie and Julius J. Muray PHYSICS OF SUBMICRON DEVICES David K. Ferry and Robert 0 . Grondin THE PHYSICS OF SUBMICRON LITHOGRAPHY KamilA. Valiev SEMICONDUCTOR LITHOGRAPHY Principles, Practices, and Materials Wayne M. Moreau SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS Sheng S. Li
t Deceased. A Continuation Order Plan is available for this series. Acontinuation order will bring delivery of each new volume immediately upon publication. Volumes are billed only upon actual shipment. For further information please contact the publisher.
The Physics of Micro /N ano-Fabrication I vor Brodie and Julius J. Murayt SRI International Menlo Park, California
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data
Brodie, Ivor. The physics of microtnano-fabrication I Ivor Brodie and Julius J. Muray. p. cm. (Microdevlcesl Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4419-3221-1 ISBN 978-1-4757-6775-9 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4757-6775-9
1. Microelectronics. II. Series.
2. Thin-film circuits.
TK7874.B725 1992 621.381--dc20
I. Muray, Julius J. 92-28941
© 1992 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Originally publishedby Plenum Press, New York in 1992
All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher
Dedicated to the memory of
Julius J. Muray 1931-1991
Preface In assembling the material for The Physics of Microfabrication a decade ago, it became clear that the field of building ultrasmall devices was in a state of rapid change. People not only were striving to build microdevices in fields other than microelectronic circuits, such as micro-optical, micromechanical, and microchemical devices, but, perhaps more important, also were striving toward achieving atomic tolerances (less than one nanometer). At the time we felt that if we wrote a book that was restricted to the physical basis of microfabrication, it should be able to cope with evolutionary changes in microfabrication processes and thereby not date too quickly. The intervening years, however, (perhaps not unexpectedly) brought with them important revolutionary developments in methods for making and viewing ultrasmall devices, reaching well into the nanometer scale-hence the small change in the title of the present volume. Outstanding among these new technologies was the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and variants thereof, which have effectively brought atomic resolution within our grasp, the expanded use of plasmas for micro/ nano-fabrication, and the marriag