Content and health risk assessment of heavy metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish from Songhua Lake (Jilin C

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Content and health risk assessment of heavy metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish from Songhua Lake (Jilin City), China Mengnan Shen 1

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& Chunyu Kang & Tiehong Song & Hai Lu & Yuehong Wang & Bowen Yu & Ru Wang & Jie Cheng

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Received: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 8 July 2020 # Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Abstract Levels of heavy metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fishes sampled in Jilin Songhua Lake, China. Concentrations and congener profiles of these contaminants varied by fish type. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Cd were found in three omnivorous fish (Carassius carassius, Hypomesus olidus, and Hemiculter leucisculus). The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Hg were found in Silurus asotus and Hemibarbus maculatus which are two kinds of carnivorous fish. The minimum total concentration of the seven PBDEs of fish was 0.093 ng/g wet weight (ww) in Ctenopharyngodon idellus, while the maximum, 0.342 ng/g ww, was detected in Aristichthys nobilis. Of all the congeners, BDE 28 and 47 were dominant. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of these metals and PBDEs via consuming the fishes was estimated to be 1.159–10.121 μg/kg bw/day and 0.046–0.597 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The total hazard quotients (THQs) of both types of pollutants were far below 1, indicating that the health risks of these pollutants were low for the people who consumed the fish species from the Songhua Lake. Keywords Heavy metals . Polybrominated diphenyl ethers . Fish . Songhua lake . Risk assessment

Introduction Heavy metals are toxic and nonbiodegradable. Once entering the aquatic ecosystems, they will accumulate in aquatic biota and magnify along the food chain (Ahmed et al. 2015). When humans, the top predator, consume these aquatic products at rates higher than the maximum allowable consumption rates, their health might be damaged (Bosch et al. 2016). Recently, ever-increasing attention is paid to the threats faced by human beings who consume aquatic biota with pollutant accumulation (Griboff et al. 2017). Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues * Mengnan Shen [email protected] * Jie Cheng [email protected] 1

Key Laboratory of Songliao Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin Jianzhu University, No. 5088 Xincheng Ave, Changchun 130118, China

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Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were applied heavily in consumer products (like plastics and textile materials) as flame retardants for many years and thus have become ubiquitous in the environment. They are of high lipophilicity and stability. Therefore, they persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biotic samples, especially aquatic organisms (Hakk and Lethcher 2003; Wu et al. 2019). As PBDEs are of endocrine toxicity, neurodevelopmental toxicity, and possible carcinogenicity, they are posing a threat to human health (Sjödin et al. 2018; Talsness 2008). The

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