First insight into polybrominated diphenyl ethers in car dust in Turkey: concentrations and human exposure implications

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First insight into polybrominated diphenyl ethers in car dust in Turkey: concentrations and human exposure implications Merve Ozkaleli Akcetin 1 & Kadir Gedik 2 & Selçuk Balci 3 & Hatice Kübra Gul 3 & Askin Birgul 3 & Perihan Binnur Kurt Karakus 3 Received: 31 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 # Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Abstract The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the car is due to their use as a flame retardant additive in various car components such as dashboard, plastic parts, seat and headliner cushion foams, insulated cables, and electronic circuits. Ingestion of dust inadvertently or dermal contact to dust are significant pathways of human exposure to pollutants including PBDEs. There are no studies documenting presence of car dust associated flame retardants in Turkey. In the current study, a total of 13 PBDEs congeners were investigated in 62 car dust samples collected from Bursa province of Turkey using glass-fiber filters and a vacuum cleaner. Results of the study showed that congener concentrations were within the range of 0.05) was observed for Ford vs Tofas, Fiat vs Tofas, or Fiat vs Ford. ∑13PBDEs in dust samples from cars manufactured in Europe (median 424 ng/g) were higher compared to ∑13PBDEs in dust from Asian cars (median 181 ng/g) and Turkish cars (median 327 ng/g) (p < 0.0001). However, the median value of ∑13PBDE results for Asian cars and Turkish cars did not show any statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). ∑13PBDE levels in cars manufactured before 2005 (median 318.5 ng/g) were statistically lower compared to in cars manufactured after 2005 (median 554.1 ng/g). As stated earlier, it is reported that only a portion of the cars produced between 1975 and 2005 worldwide have been treated with c-penta-BDE and that one can expect to see higher ∑13PBDEs levels in cars manufactured before 2005. Harrad and Abdallah (2011) reported that the total amount of PBDE congeners in the vehicle interior air is highly variable among the different brands of cars, models, and even among replicate models of vehicles in the UK. It was postulated that some PBDE congeners might provide evidence of PBDE photochemical degradation in personal vehicles, and this could be related to the sunlit portion of the vehicle cabin. Such situation could be a reason for lower PBDE concentrations in cars manufactured before 2005 in the current study; however, unfortunately, there was no investigation carried out on the window glass surface area or the percent light transmission for each car in the current study. Therefore, it is not possible to make further discussion/interpretation on this result. ∑13PBDEs levels did not show any statistically significant differences in cars (p > 0.05) with presence or absence of air conditioning (AC). However, it should be kept in mind that sampling was conducted when the AC was off in all cars and results might differ when AC is working. Electronic and electric devices in the vehicles are grouped as follows: aud