Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China: identification of priority PBDE congeners

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China: identification of priority PBDE congeners Yaomin Luo 1 & Wanzi Shi 1 & Mingtao You 2 & Ruijie Zhang 2 & Si Li 3 & Nan Xu 1 & Weiling Sun 2 Received: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 # Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Abstract Although the production of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been phased out over the past decade worldwide, they are still potentially hazardous to the environment due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the levels of 55 PBDEs in water and sediments from the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. The levels of PBDEs were in the range of not detected (ND)–286.67 ng/L in water and ND–236.04 ng/g in sediments. BDE209 was the predominant PBDE congener and constituted 15–50% and 44–68% of the total PBDEs in water and sediments, respectively. Commercial pentaBDE products (70-5DE, DE71) were the dominant source of tetraBDE, pentaBDE, and hexaBDE, while commercial octaBDE (79-8DE) and decaBDE (102E and 82-0DE) products were the main sources of nonaBDE and decaBDE in water. PBDEs in sediments mainly stemmed from commercial decaBDE products and combustion sources. BDE-209 posed high ecological risks to aquatic organisms and dominated the total ecological risks of PBDEs. No cancer risks and non-cancer risks were observed for PBDEs. A ranking method based on four criteria, i.e., detection frequency, concentration, ecological risk, and health risks, was proposed, and 17 PBDEs were identified as high priority PBDEs for future monitoring and management in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Keywords PBDEs . Brominated flame retardants . Danjiangkou Reservoir . Source . Risk assessment . Priority pollutants

Introduction Polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as a flame retardant additive, have been widely used in various commercial and industrial products, such as plastics, textiles, construction products, furniture, and electrical devices (Gravel et al. 2018; Li

Responsible Editor: Hongwen Sun Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11254-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. * Weiling Sun [email protected] 1

Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Heavy Metal Pollution Control and Reutilization, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China

2

College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

3

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China

et al. 2017). PBDEs are directly mixed into products during the manufacturing process and connected to polymer materials through physical interaction rather than stable chemical bonds (de Wit et al. 2010; Smielowska and Zabiegala 2018).