Sediment Records of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) from the Anhui Province Section of Yangtze River, China

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Sediment Records of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) from the Anhui Province Section of Yangtze River, China Chunnian Da1 · Ruwei Wang2,3 · Qing Huang2,3 · Jinyu Mao1 · Lijin Xie1 · Chao Xue1 · Long Zhang1 Received: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 13 November 2020 © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Abstract This study investigated the temporal changes of PBDEs in the sediment cores from the Anhui Province section of Yangtze River (YR), China. The dramatic increase of ∑Br3-Br9-BDEs and BDE-209 concentrations in cores in the period of ca. 1990–2008 was consistent with the booming of regional and national production and consumption of household appliances and electronics. Following declines in BDE-209 and ∑Br3-Br9-BDEs concentrations can be associated with the deceasing use of legacy commercial PBDE mixtures in recent years. Compared with the different regions around the world, sediments in the YR were moderately polluted by PBDEs. The levels and the detection rates of BDE-209 were highest among the detected PBDEs single congener. The composition analysis indicated that Deca-BDE, Octa-BDE, and Penta-BDE were the dominant forms in the YR. The increasing trends of both BDE-209 and ∑Br3-Br9-BDEs in the YR during 1990s and 2000s largely reflected the time periods for transferring PBDE sources from the developed countries to China. TOC and finer particles were strongly correlated with distributions of PBDEs in sediments. Keywords  Polybrominated diphenyl ethers · Sedimentation · Source identification · Yangtze River Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively used in various plastics, textiles, building materials, foam-upholstered furniture and electronic circuitry as flame retardants for more than five decades (Abbasi et al. 2015). PBDEs entered into the environment during production, use and disposal of PBDE-containing products (Drage et al. 2015). Existing production and usage inventory indicated that the cumulative global production of PBDE technical Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (https​://doi.org/10.1007/s0012​8-020-03054​-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. * Ruwei Wang [email protected] 1



School of Biology, Food and Environment, Hefei University, Hefei 230022, Anhui Province, China

2



Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China

3

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou, China



products was ca.1.5–1.7 million tons since the 1960s and reached a peak in 2003 (~ 75,000 tons) (Da et al. 2019). Commercial PBDEs comprise three main products: PentaBDE (containing 70% of BDE-47 and BDE-99), Octa-BDE (containing 40% of BDE-183), and Deca-BDE (containing 98% of BDE-209) (Cetin et al. 2019). Although forbidd

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