UV-A Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation with Emphasis on Hu

The origin of this text was a request by industry and government to summarize the biological effects and to estimate the limits of safe exposure to longwave ul­ traviolet radiation. The specific issue was the safety of a small medium-pressure mercury arc

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Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation with Emphasis on Human Responses to Longwave Ultraviolet JOHN A. PARRISH, M.D. and R. ROX ANDERSON Harvard Medical School

FREDERICK URBACH, M.D. Skin and Cancer Hospital Temple University School of Medicine

and DONALD PITTS, 0.0., Ph.D. College of Optometry University ofHouston

PLENUM PRESS . NEW YORK AND LONDON

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: UV-A: biological effects of ultraviolet radiation with emphasis on human responses to longwave ultraviolet. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Ultra-violet rays - Physiological effect. 2. Ultra-violet rays. I. Parrish, John Albert, 1939[DNLM: 1. Ultraviolet rays. 2. Skin-Radiation effects. 3. Eye-Radiation effects. QT162.U4 Ul06] QP82.2.U4Ul8 612.01448'4 78-14968 ISBN-13: 978-1-4684-2477-5 e-ISBN-13: 978-1-4684-2475-1 DOl: 10.1007/978-1-4684-2475-1

© 1978 Plenum Press, New York Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1978 A Division of Plenum Publishing Corporation 227 West 17th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011

All rights reserved No part of this !look may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher

Preface The origin of this text was a request by industry and government to summarize the biological effects and to estimate the limits of safe exposure to longwave ultraviolet radiation. The specific issue was the safety of a small medium-pressure mercury arc designed to emit UV-A (NUVA-Lite, L. D. Caulk Co., Milford, Delaware) for photopolymerization of resinous fillings used in dentistry. How-ever, the context grew to become a consideration of the risks and benefits to humans of electromagnetic radiation between the biologically active short UV and the visible spectrum. We have accumulated data from our own experimental work and from the literature and have attempted to put this information in the perspective of known biologic effects of ultraviolet radiation as it influences humans. Interest in the biological effects of longwave ultraviolet radiation is increasing in all of the many scientific disciplines that make up the complex field of photobiology. In order to minimize the chance for error and personal prejudice and to maximize the use of expertise, each chapter has been reviewed by several authorities. Some of the contributions of this group led to significant alterations and creative additions to the chapter, and these persons deserve not only our sincere gratitude but also recognition by the reader. These include Chapters 2 and 3: Dr. Robert E. Levin, Mr. Charles P. Comeau, Mr. Donald Gonser, Dr. David Sliney; Chapter 5: Dr. Jerry Williams, Dr. Robert Webb, Dr. Madhu A. Pathak; Chapter 6: Dr. Farrington Daniels, Jr., Dr. Albert Kligman, Dr. Barbara Gilchrest, Dr. Thomas B. Fitzpatrick; Chapter 7: Dr. H. A. D. White; Chapter 8: Dr. Donald Forbes, Dr. Reinaldo Rosario, Dr. Ernesto Gonzalez, Dr