Applications and Efficacy of Exceptional Bioactive Compounds from Microalgae

Microalgae are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that are found in both freshwater and marine environment. These are successfully used as food and feed supplements and are efficient producers of fine chemicals and biofuels. Microalgae are also an excel

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Contents 1 Introduction 2 Microalgae-Derived Bioactive Compounds 2.1 Polysaccharides 2.2 Carotenoids 2.3 Antioxidants 2.4 Lipids 2.5 Proteins 2.6 Diterpenes 3 Applications 3.1 As Antimicrobial Agents 3.2 As Anticancerous Agents 3.3 As Anti-inflammatory Agents 3.4 As Antioxidant Agents 4 Future Prospects 5 Conclusion References

Abstract Microalgae are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that are found in both freshwater and marine environment. These are successfully used as food and feed supplements and are efficient producers of fine chemicals and biofuels. Microalgae are also an excellent source of bioactive compounds like vitamins, proteins, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, or polysterols with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. Currently, the demand of these natural bioactive compounds is increasing as they impart health benefits when included and consumed in a functional food or in nutraceuticals. Thus, the utility of microalgae for the production of natural bioactive compounds should be explored

S. Sinha, K. Bisaria, T. Mehrotra, and R. Singh (*) Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 Manuel Jerold, Santhiagu Arockiasamy, and Velmurugan Sivasubramanian (eds.), Bioprocess Engineering for Bioremediation: Valorization and Management Techniques, Hdb Env Chem, https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2020_581

S. Sinha et al.

at the commercial and industrial sector to harness the growing demands. The chapter gives the overview of different bioactive compounds produced by microalgae which have a wide range of application in different kinds of industries. Keywords Anticancerous, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antioxidants, Bioactive compounds, Microalgae

1 Introduction All around the world, research has been initiated to develop greener technologies for the production of substances that are not only beneficial to the environment but also to the human health. Thus, a substantial amount of study has been focused on utilizing natural resources for producing bioactive compounds as compared to the traditional synthetic approach [1]. Utilizing greener technologies or natural sources for production of value added compounds makes the entire process cost-effective, sustainable, and recyclable and eco-friendly [2]. Recently, microalgae have attracted a lot of attention as a potential candidate for the continuous and sustainable production of several different bioactive compounds [3]. Microalgae are a group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic photosynthetic organism found both in freshwater and marine environment. For more than hundred years, these microalgae have been used as food, fodder, fertilizer, and a source of variety of chemicals [4]. Additionally, they can be a very intriguing source of natural compounds with very high biological activity that could be successfully used in different industrial sectors. As a matter of fact, when th

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