Studies on Atherosclerosis

This volume explores the role free radicals and antioxidants within the development of vascular disease, examining fundamental research and translating preclinical knowledge to clinical trials. The expertly authored chapters describe the relationship of o

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Martin Rodriguez-Porcel Alejandro R. Chade Jordan D. Miller Editors

Studies on Atherosclerosis

Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice

Editor-in-Chief Donald Armstrong

More information about this series at

Note from the Editor-in-Chief All books in this series illustrate point-of-care testing and critically evaluate the potential of antioxidant supplementation in various medical disorders associated with oxidative stress. Future volumes will be updated as warranted by emerging new technology, or from studies reporting clinical trials. Donald Armstrong Editor-in-Chief

Martin Rodriguez-Porcel Alejandro R. Chade  •  Jordan D. Miller Editors

Studies on Atherosclerosis

Editors Martin Rodriguez-Porcel Cardiovascular Diseases Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA

Alejandro R. Chade University of Mississippi Jackson, MS, USA

Jordan D. Miller Department of Surgery Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA

ISSN 2197-7224     ISSN 2197-7232 (electronic) Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice ISBN 978-1-4899-7691-8    ISBN 978-1-4899-7693-2 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4899-7693-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016944157 © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper This Humana Press imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer Science+Business Media LLC New York


Oxidative stress is a product balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants. Reactive oxygen species are normally generated by cells and a certain level of oxidative stress plays an important role as second messenger under physiological conditions. However when oxidative stress is increased, whether due to blunted antioxidant defenses or increased generation of reactive oxygen species, it can have a deleterious effect on almost any organ/system in the human. Increased oxidative stress has been shown to promote vasoconstriction

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