Reliability of Microtechnology Interconnects, Devices and Systems

Reliability of Microtechnology discusses the reliability of microtechnology products from the bottom up, beginning with devices and extending to systems. The book's focus includes but is not limited to reliability issues of interconnects, the methodology

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Johan Liu Olli Salmela Jussi Sa¨rkka¨ Per-Erik Tegehall James E. Morris Cristina Andersson l

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Reliability of Microtechnology Interconnects, Devices and Systems

Johan Liu SMIT Center and Bionano Systems Laboratory Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience Chalmers University of Technology Kemiva¨gen 9, SE-412 96 Go¨teborg Sweden and Key Laboratory of New Displays and System Integration SMIT Center and School of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering Box 282, Room 316, Mechatronics Building, Shanghai University No 149, Yan Chang Road Shanghai 200072, China [email protected] Olli Salmela Nokia Siemens Networks Linnoitustie 6, FI-02600 Espoo Finland [email protected]

James E. Morris Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Portland State University P.O. Box 751, Portland OR 97207-0751 USA [email protected] Per-Erik Tegehall Swerea IVF Box 104, SE-431 22 Mo¨lndal Sweden [email protected] Cristina Andersson Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience Chalmers University of Technology Kemiva¨gen 9, SE-412 96 Go¨teborg Sweden [email protected]

Jussi Sa¨rkka¨ Nokia Siemens Networks Kaapelitie 4, FI-90620 Oulu Finland [email protected]

ISBN 978-1-4419-5759-7 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-5760-3 DOI 10.1007/ 978-1-4419-5760-3 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number: 2011920685 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer ScienceþBusiness Media (www.springer.com)

Foreword

As a society, our dependency on electronics products permeates every corner of the world, at an ever accelerated pace. As an industry, we have been and will continue to place the highest priority on product reliability, while facing increasingly demanding customers and mounting competitive pressures. It is widely recognized that product reliability issues can result in inconvenience in some cases and catastrophe in others. It is, therefore, a matter of the utmost importance that we educate our college students and practicing engineers on the reliability of microtechnology – its theory and practical applications. The issue of reliability, however, is complicated by the wide variety of application environments and requirements, which give rise to different stress conditions (thermomechanical, dynamical, e