Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks-Derived Activated Carbon As Electrode Material for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries and Lithium-

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https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-020-08378-2  2020 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks-Derived Activated Carbon As Electrode Material for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries and Lithium-Ion Batteries GUANGHUI YUAN,1,4 RUI CAO,2 MIN GENG,1 HUAFENG JIN,1 BAOTAO LI,3 and QIONG XU2,5 1.—Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Research Centre of New Advanced Materials, Ankang Research Centre of Zn Based Materials and Fe/Al Nano-materials Science and Technology, Ankang University, Ankang 725000, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. 2.—Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Catalysis, School of Chemical and Environment Science, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. 3.—Shaanxi Huayin Technology Company Limited, Ankang 725000, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. 4.—e-mail: [email protected] 5.—e-mail: [email protected]

Zeolitic imidazolate framework-derived carbon (ZC) material and ZC-sulfur (ZC-S) composite were prepared successfully via a solution method accompanied by facile carbonization and subsequent sulfur impregnation. The ZC and ZC-S materials kept the basic polyhedral morphology of the zeolitic imidazolate framework crystals. Sulfur is homogeneously distributed over and in the ZC porous matrix with a 51.0% sulfur mass content in ZC-S composite. The ZC material exhibits good electrochemical performances in lithium-ion batteries. After 100 cycles at 0.1 A g 1, a reversible discharge capacity of 619 mAh g 1 is still retained, which is benefitted by the micro/mesopores and specific surface area of the synthesized ZC material. When integrated into lithium-sulfur batteries as a cathode, the ZC-S composite exhibits stable discharge capacity of 850 mAh g 1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C (1 C = 1670 mA g 1). The increased electrochemical properties of the ZC-S electrode compared to the pristine S electrode may be attributed to the advantageous effects of the ZC porous matrix, which serve as a conductive frame promoting electron and lithium ion transportation and provide abundant active sites to increase electrochemical activity and ensnare soluble polysulfides efficiently. Key words: Zeolitic imidazolate framework, porous carbon material, sulfur composite, electrode material

INTRODUCTION Increasing energy demands from the ever-advancing society necessitate the rapid development of suitable materials for high-performance batteries. The majority of current cathode materials, such as lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate and lithium iron phosphate, have very limited theoretical capacities.1,2 A lithium-sulfur battery, by

(Received April 20, 2020; accepted July 29, 2020)

contrast, can offer an outstanding theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g 1, which is magnitudes greater than that of a graphite//LiCoO2 battery.3,4 Even though sulfur is plenteous, lithium-sulfur batteries have yet to realize practical applications due to poor electrical conductivity of sulfur and high dissolution of polysulfides into electrolyte.5 To surmount these critical issues of lith